Grace Murray Hopper(1906 - 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy officer. She was one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer, and developed the first compiler for a computer programming language. She conceptualized the idea of machine-independent programming languages, which led to the development of COBOL, one of the first modern programming languages. She is credited with popularizing the term "debugging" for fixing computer glitches . Because of the breadth of her accomplishments and her naval rank, she is sometimes referred to as "Amazing Grace".